CIVILISATION AND FEAR
CIVILISATION AND FEAR
Writing and the Subject/s of Ideology

International Conference

22 - 25 September 2010
Ustroń, Poland

Abstracts

(alphabetised by presenters' names)

*Please note that the abstracts are published exactly as submitted by the authors.

Anna Antonowicz

Catholic University of Lublin, Poland

Indian zigzags - the Industrial Monster

The paper presents the Victorian ideas upon beautiful and correct art in the industrial era. In particular, it analyses the negative views of John Ruskin upon the governmental reform of decorative art undertaken in the mid-Victorian period, aiming to imbue low-quality British artefacts with the principles of Indian art. To the reformers, the so-called Cole circle, Indian art objects constituted the ideal of industrial art: its superior forms, conventionalised and geometrical ornaments, exquisite colour palette and high craftsmanship formed a canon of beauty both appealing to the modern man and necessary to end the decorative crisis. To Ruskin, an anti-materialist and preacher of moral art, Indian objects were the products of irrational and cruel people, and they represented aesthetic savageness and spiritual death. Thus, to Ruskin the decorative reform was an attempt to make the British lords copy the black vulgarity of the conquered people, rendering the British nation primitive and immoral as a result. The clash between the views of Ruskin and Cole circle is an interesting testimony to the war of values in the period of great anxiety over the influence of technological advancement upon aesthetics and taste. It is also a testimony to the Victorian transcendental vision of art as an aesthetic as much as religious value.

Dorota Babilas

Warsaw University, Poland

Victorian Culture and the Fear of the Talented Woman in George Eliot's Daniel Deronda

Victorian culture, with its preoccupation with social order and clearly defined gender roles, has been both titillated and alarmed by a possibility of the feminine talent. Even if the official rhetoric professed that "Genius has no gender", the reality was less unbiased. The paper will explore a selection of examples dealing with the themes of the musical talent displayed by the heroines of George Eliot's novel Daniel Deronda (1876). The markedly varied portrayals of three female characters provide an overview of Victorian attitudes towards artistically gifted women. The socially ambitious beauty, Gwendolen Harleth, uses her mediocre skill to secure a desirable, yet ultimately unhappy, marriage with a rich man, whereas the title character's mother, Contessa Alcharisi, selfishly abandons her family to pursue her singing career. The terrifying force of the woman's vocal gift which leads to disintegration of the social order and even to crime - is counterbalanced by the character of Mirah, the meek Jewish girl with whom Daniel falls in love. The visions of an angelic creature, a dangerous siren, and an un-sexed monster are all variations on the theme of musically gifted women proposed by one of the most compassionate female authors of the nineteenth century.

Ryszard Bartnik

Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland

Living in the Face of Menacing "Unreason". Martin Amis' The Second Planeas a Response to Ideological Fundamentalisms

This paper concerns Martin Amis' diagnosis of the Western world and its foundations which appear to have been imperiled, as maintained by the author, by a specific "de-Enlightenment". Accordingly many a writer of fiction feels compelled to "snap out of solipsistic daydreams" (2008). Amis, as one of them, draws up a defense of reason taking - paradoxically - a very personal, not to say a doctrinaire stand on the world's unrests. Investigating public beliefs, either of religious or political nature, he is apprehensive of the way individual freedom has been curbed by various fundamentalisms. In his highly controversial collection of essays and short stories titled The Second Plane Amis renounces in an uncompromising way intellectual insularity, political dogmatism but first and foremost religious militancy. Politically incorrect, 'blasphemously' offensive, the novelist repudiates Islamic integrity and subjects right-wing 'theological' intransigence to severe criticism. My intention, thus, would be to show Amis' overall standpoint referring both to the short story "The last days of Muhammad Atta" and a number of his articles written between 2002-2007. In the end, his persistent reevaluation of fossilized systems of beliefs might bring us back to the Enlightenment skepticism towards hermetic notions impeding human development.

Agata Bielik-Robson

IFiS, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

Homo anxius. Fear in Philosophical Anthropology
Keynote address

The aim of my presentation is to place fear within the frame of the so called human condition. Philosophical anthropology, a discipline that emerged as an attempt to understand "human difference" in regard with other natural beings, often emphasizes an excess of anxiety as a characteristic feature of man. Homo anxius is thus a term frequently used to describe the specificity of human psychic life.

In my paper, I will offer a brief historical overview of this concept and then focus mostly on Freud's speculation on the nature of anxiety as "constantly accompanying every conscious representation." In Freud's account, anxiety - a constant latent condition of every actual experience of fear - functions as a manifestation of "libidinal excess," i.e. an energetic surplus which characterizes human drives. Unlike animal instincts able to find immediate natural fulfillment, human drives are "indefinite" and have no "matching" counterparts in the surrounding world; in consequence, they can never be "properly" satisfied and as such produce a halo of restlessness, a certain anxious reverse which accompanies every attempt to achieve gratification.

Relying on Freud's insights into the excessive nature of human drives, I would like to pose the question concerning the status of anxiety within human psyche. Is anxiety an anthropological constans that can never be sublated - or is it possible to find a solution to the "libidinal surplus" and thus appease its anxious manifestation? I will try to show that some late developments within psychoanalytic theory (most of all inspired by Adorno's critique of Freud) try to pursue the latter option, by offering a utopian vision of human condition finally freed from the excess of fear.

Katarzyna Blacharska

Warsaw University, Poland

The Renaissance "Plus ultra" and the Recurrence of "Non plus ultra" as Reflected in the Poetry of John Donne and John Milton's Epic Paradise Lost

The allegorical vision of the world, characteristic of the Middle Ages, might have been a reaction of the imagination to ubiquitous anxiety that permeated the period (Umberto Eco, Art and Beauty in the Middle Ages). In this context the emergence of mappae mundi, characteristic medieval world maps, may be read as the reflection of both, the anxiety and the symbolic system of understanding, as not only do they provide partly allegorical image of the world, but also communicate certain ideas, most notably the notion of "Non plus ultra," which marked the Pillars of Hercules as the ultimate border of the world, beyond which there was nothing. Venturing beyond would mean death, both physical and spiritual. With the beginning of the Renaissance the worldview changes, but the end of it will witness the recurrence of the fear of unknown land. The paper will sketch the changing tendencies between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, but also within the very Renaissance, focusing on their reflection in John Donne's poetry and John Milton's epic Paradise Lost.

Anna Budziak

Wrocław University, Poland

The Language of Decadence: A Fearful Master of Men

Nineteenth-century Anglo-German philology deepened the Victorian apprehension that language might be an autonomous entity. This idea of language was further developed by the literature of English Decadence: language was regarded not only as autonomous but also as a reality beyond human control. This paper focuses on the phenomena accompanying this late Victorian uneasiness about the status of language. It draws attention to the fact that nineteenth-century English was described with metaphors borrowed from biological evolutionism. Language was believed to evolve or deviate through pathology; it was viewed as inscribed into a degenerative pattern and prone to decomposition. This strangely materialized language, in its literary version, was marked by an overtly sophisticated style, which-even if it inspired awe through its over-refinement-paradoxically also functioned as an antidote against fear: the fear of heterogeneous relationship.

However, English Decadents would not only be apprehensive about the degeneration of language; they would fear the language itself. The text would turn into a fetish, or into a fatal book, or-collapsed in echolalia and delivered in a "flute-like voice" - a Decadent text was believed to exert a hypnotic power over human beings and deprive them of reason and will.

Katarzyna Chruszczewska

Warsaw University, Poland

"To Be Saved by Chaos": Emancipation of Self by Mutilation and Perversion. Chuck Palahniuk's Invisible Monsters and Choke.

The greatest imprisonment of an individual identity originate from cultural categories: being classified as a man or a woman, as a pervert or a martyr, as a beauty or a monster. The main subject of anxiety and fear of Palahniuk's characters is categorisation, being captured in schemes that totally organise one's identity and experience of reality. Victor Mancini cannot decide whether he resembles more Jesus Christ or Don Giovanni, Shannon McFarland with her mutilated face is a half monster and half beauty, Brandy Alexander remains an androgyne captured between masculinity and femininity. To avoid being defined, to exist as a blank, a sphinx, a hybrid, one has to exceed the borders of culture, reject all general categories, immerse oneself in chaos. Struggle for true identity explodes in total rebellion against cultural regime, manifested in different modes of sexual perversion or intentional mutilation of the body. The necessity of creation the hybridity of one's identity, entails the destruction of main structures of self. As Baudrillardic simulacra exceed the distinction between truth and falseness, Palahniuk's characters aim for indefinability of self by disputing sexuality and questioning the body.

Yingchi Chu

Critical Discourse in the Chinese Media

For roughly a century China has transformed Western concepts alien to the Confucian world picture. Notions such as 'citizens rights', 'human rights', 'freedom of the press', or 'democracy' have no equivalents in the Confucian tradition. Although some of these have been partially implemented, they have never acquired the status they enjoy in the West. The paper addresses one such import, the concept of 'critical discourse', as it has evolved since the European Enlightenment, comparing it with related terms in the Chinese lexicon, pipan, piping, and lunheng. I will show that while Kant's summary of the Enlightenment as the age in which 'everything must submit to critique (Kritik)' is essential to our understanding of 'critical discourse' no such notion can be found in Chinese thought. Just as the emphasis on individual rights is still being viewed as egotistic, lacking as it does in the ancient virtues of obedience and submission to social order, so 'critical discourse' as a hallmark of a modern society is foreign to the traditional Chinese social imagination. The paper demonstrates how forms of critical discourse are gradually emerging in the Chinese media, in particular in certain documentary films and in educational and debating programs on television.

Richard A. Davis

University of Lille 3, France

Fear and Terror in the Formulation and Conduct of British Foreign Policy

This paper will attempt to address the ways in which the ideas of fear have been a driving force in the formulation and the conduct of British foreign policy over certain key periods of the past century and in the present day. Its approach will be both historical, drawing on the precedents of the past (the impact of the horrors of the first world war on British foreign policy in the inter-war years; the particular case of the fear of air warfare and of gas attacks in this period, as exemplified in the idea that 'the bomber will always get through', a phrase used by, amongst others, the British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin; the fear of a nuclear holocaust and of the so-called 'red menace' in the era of the Cold war; the fear in some Eurosceptic circles of the European danger to Britain and to British identity), and deal with contemporary British politics and ideologies by looking at the present day fears of international terrorism and the ways that these fears, supported by numerous official discourses centered on, and popular portrayals of the images of, horror, have been employed as a justification for policies. It will also deal with the demonization of certain foreign leaders, for example Nasser and Saddam Hussein, and the ways in which this has been used to promote certain policies. The paper will, therefore, be articulated around the interactions between British foreign policy itself and the fears of the foreign world, how each has used and fed off the other. It will also necessarily consider the interplays between the official world of foreign policy making (the Foreign Office, Downing Street etc) and that of the media through which such fears have so often been transmitted and promoted.

Thomas Dutoit

University of Lille 3

Fear of Castration and the Beheading of Civilisation: on Kant, Reik and Freud

My paper belongs to an ongoing project devoted to representations that think the death penalty. In Ustron, I shall highlight the psychoanalytic interpretation of the death penalty.

As Locke argued, the death penalty is the foundation of political power. Seen by philosophy (Kant), the death penalty is that without which there is no law and no civilisation. No philosophical argument as such has ever opposed the death penalty, because philosophy places something above life, above nature, to wit, law. According to Kant, no human being, guilty of a crime punishable by the death penalty, considered -- in particular by himself -- as rational being, fears it, because noumenal or rational man evens wants such sanction. Psychoanalysis, however (and deconstructive thinking), seriously challenges the philosophical equation of the death penalty with civilisation, or that of fear with life (nature). If punishment were to be found to precede crime, if the need for punishment produced my crime, then political power as defined by Locke suffers an earthquake. This paper therefore intends to reconsider Reik (The Compulsion to Confess)and Freud (in particular Freud on female virginity), as a response to the thinking of fear, of civilisation, under the heading or beheading of the death penalty.

Sonia Front

University of Silesia, Poland

"(Un)happy Together" - Destabilizing Ideology in Wong Kar-Wai's Cinema

In his Real Gaze. Film Theory after Lacan Todd McGowan explains how most traditional cinema, which he calls "cinema of integration," becomes a medium through which institutions of power impose the 'right' discourse of the self. This is possible because of the nature of cinematic experience, a kind of pseudo-dream, depriving the viewer of conscious control, and making it possible for ideology to perform the unconscious process of interpellation. The viewer prefers to accept the false promise of ideology, rather than expose oneself to fear of the lack of meaning. To avoid manipulation, McGowan proposes full engagement in a film so as to recognize the point at which its structure collapses and the gaze emerges. Thus, cinema enables encounter with the real which disturbs the power of ideology and threatens the social order protected by ideology because it transpires that the big Other does not exist as it cannot make sense of the traumatic real. The films which make this experience possible McGowan has called "the cinema of desire." The paper explores art cinema of Hong Kong director Wong Kar-Wai as the cinema of desire which, by rejecting fantasmatic scenarios, opts for an alternative model of subjectivity.

Aleksander Gomola

Jagiellonian University, Poland

All shall be well - Eschatology of Julian of Norwich as the Counterbalance for Modernist Angst.

Presenting Eliot as a prophet of fear with regard to the Western Civilization seems to be a one-sided point of view. He writes of "fear in a handful of dust", true, but he also repeats after a 13th English mystic, that "all shall be well". Yet what does he mean by that? What did Julian of Norwich, who wrote down these words for the first time seven hundred years before, mean by them? And if there is hope in spite of fear is it going to be a hope of Armageddon for the chosen ones or a hope of Apocatastasis for all and everybody? In my paper I wish to present a vision of Christian eschatology by Julian of Norwich that informed Eliot and his writing and that has been gaining more and more popularity in modern Christian theology counterbalancing the traditional interpretations of the Christian biblical narratives dominant in the Catholicism in the last centuries, the narratives that underlie very often seemingly secular visions of the end of the Western civilization.

Monika Gorzelak

University of Silesia, Poland

City of (Dis)Appearnce or Danse Macabre in New York

My proposition in City of (Dis)Appearance or Danse Macabre in New York is that New York in Paul Auster's City of Glass and Don DeLillo's Cosmopolis is a contemporary copy of Dante's City of Dis. Furthermore, I argue that Cosmopolis echoes City of Glass. My proposition is based on Gilles Deleuze's concept that there is a difference in every repetition, which makes it independent of its original. Most importantly, in the context of Civilization and Fear Conference, Deleuzian repetition comes from the death instinct and 'carries the secret of [...] the demonic' but should not be confused with the clichéd binaries of life vs. death, Good vs. Evil or fear vs. security.

In the essay, I also combine Deleuze's concept of repetition with Richard Schechner's concept of performance as 'twice-behaved [...] ritualized behaviour' to present the eponymous danse macabre in New York. What I propose is that the protagonists in City of Glass and Cosmopolis retrace the steps of Dante's protagonist. What is different about Auster's and Delillo's walkers is that instead of mere getting lost and walking in search of their identities, they are dancing. And their dance is called butoh.

Butoh is a postmodern cross-cultural urban dance. Bu means 'dance' and to means 'step.' Thus butoh is a dance step or, in the long run, a dance walk. It is also referred to as Ankoku Butoh, i.e. the Dance of Utter Darkness, and as a contemporary danse macabre. The reason for this is not only its macabre imagery but butoh's 'liminality.' Not unlike danse macabre, which relates to both death and rebirth, butoh rejects the simplistic opposition between 'life' and 'death.' As a consequence, it disputes identity; constant metamorphosis is its signature. Thus, the ontological status of butoh dancers is indeterminable.

By implication, city walkers, or butohists, in City of Glass and Cosmopolis are betwixt and between. They (dis)appear in what is called 'liminal space' in performance theory. Everyday walking is thus a butoh performance or a rite of passage in its liminalphase, to use Victor Turner's term. Most importantly, in the liminal phase, there is a possibility for a ritual to be creative and make new identities and social realities such as New York City of DisAppearance. However, this makes a city, in Frederic Jameson's words, a kind of f e a r f u l 'schizo-space': 'No one is quite sure of the ground they stand, which direction they are facing, or where they are going. Under these circumstances, the subject is proclaimed dead.' Thus the description of a street by Michael Keith, a contemporary space theoretician, as a place 'where it is possible to go out in public and meet strangers' sounds like a good closing line to an essay abstract on Civilization and Fear.

Marek Grzanka

University of Silesia, Poland

Multiculturalism: an Unreal World. Erasing Difference Under the Banner of Diversity

"Pointing out the dangers of multiculturalism . . . . today is like criticizing motherhood in a conversation with Mother Teresa." (Pat Duffy Hutcheon). This paper shall attempt to draw attention to the failure of multiculturalism as an agenda, cultural approach and literary genre. It relates to the broader topic of my PhD thesis on postcolonial literature and theory. After briefly presenting the apparent and idealistic image and rules of multiculturalism, the author will reveal the faults in its basic design and the consequences this unleashes upon societies created by this creed. Despite the fact that multiculturalism claims to be a festival of "diversity," it backfires on society and starts to destroy the very things it vows to protect: true liberty, real tolerance and normal cultural development. Multiculturalism is a path to blandness and denying real differences, the path towards lying to oneself... "Official multicultural policies have been even more divisive than old-fashioned racism." (Kenan Malik). The paper shall also attempt to present that literary works that show true cultural, national and religious diversity do not omit the element of struggle between cultures as multiculturalism does.

James Henry

American University in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

The Postmodern Condition and/in the Persian Gulf

Several prestigious Western universities have set up branches in the wealthy oil Skeikhdoms and Kingdoms of the Persian Gulf. There is a Sorbonne and a New York University in Abu Dhabi; Cornell has a campus in Qatar. Staffing these institutions are many scholars from the west, many of whom share a postmodern ideology of fragmentation, dislocation, and philosophical ambivalences.

Their students, however, come mostly from a tradition that has not suffered the metaphysical crises of the West and so have no grounding in the ideas of modernism, postmodernism, or, often, any of the ideologies of the West.

The conflicts this situation quite naturally produces are deeply problematic and bring up some troubling questions about education, imperialism, and Orientalism.

Is there value in teaching Waiting for Godot to students from a culture that does not romanticize nihilism? Does The Metamorphosis have anything to tell a culture with a deep religious faith and no sense of being identity-less? Can Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49 work as an introduction to "what the word is there, buffering, to protect us from" to a culture that, in the majority, does not see reality as being fragmented into the symbolic and the presymbolic.

Justyna Jajszczok

University of Silesia, Poland

The Parasite and Fear. The Transition from Religion to Medicine

Without doubt fear has always been the unwanted passenger of civilisation, proving man's most natural reaction towards the unknown and the inexplicable. Just as by fear, since the dawn of time, humanity was accompanied by another dark passenger: a parasite. A passenger all the more fearful as its presence was for years on end considered a token of God's wrath. As times changed and human knowledge progressed, such prejudices and misconceptions were gradually discarded. However, the newly formed science of parasitology seemed immune to weeding out of these stereotypes. Instead, in a transition which took place by the end of the eighteenth century, the fearful figure of the parasite was transposed from religious to medical ground, where it lost the associations of divine revenge and was equalled with a symptom of a disease. While initially people were afraid of parasites because they were a sign of the divine punishment, subsequently they feared them as parasites began to be associated with disease and contagion. Thus the fear the parasite evoked, though redirected, remained intact. The aim of the paper is to present this redirecting and its implications for the perception of the parasite in the nineteenth century.

Tomasz Jarymowicz

University of Opole, Poland

What is Judith Butler Afraid of? - Fears and Politics

My paper is going to be focused on the problem of fear in Judith Butler's philosophy. I will argue that this undertaking is worthwhile because it may shed some interesting light on the kind of politics that this philosopher is trying to advance. However, it must be borne in mind that speaking about the politics in Judith Butler's philosophy can be tricky at least for two reasons. First of all, Butler herself rejects the idea of giving any specific advice on the kind of politics that should be done. Secondly, the politics in the postmodern vein can also be a matter of contention (e. g. Habermas's discussion of Derrida's interpretation of Austin and the contentions between Seyla Benhabib and Judith Butler) Keeping this trickiness in mind I will focus my attention on Butler's following fears: that the opposition to normative discourse can threaten one's existence, that the alliances made between minority groups can be a case of appropriation, that seizing the control over one's language can stop the process of resignification and finally that universalism always represents violence. Is it possible to alleviate those fears or is their alleviation always the worst remedy?

Joanna Jodlowska

Warsaw University, Poland

Who's Afraid of the Supermarket: A Study of Andrzej Wójcik's and Ewan Jones-Morris's Semi-Documentary Brand New World

The paper sets out to analyze the criticism levelled against the contemporary society by Andrzej Wójcik and Ewan Jones-Morris in their experimental semi-documentary Brand New World (2005). It is done on the assumption that such criticism is a statement of fear that the society may continue to evolve in an undesirable direction or has evolved so, to the point of irreversibility. Consequently, the criticism traced in the movie is interpreted, for the purpose of this paper, as a warning inspired by fear or a damning verdict permeated by it. Therefore, the central question of the analysis is: what kind of a world are Wójcik and Jones-Morris showing to the audience as a potential object of fear, what are they expressing and what do they seem to be omitting? The analysis will be conducted partly from the perspective of the movie's relation to the novel Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, i.e. from a dystopian literary studies angle. The issues discussed will include: consumerism, marketing, the functioning of the mass-media, rebellion against the modern society and compliance with it.

Paulina Kamińska

Warsaw University, Poland

Civilisation, Fear and Trauma in Doris Lessing's Writing

The aim of this paper is to discuss civilisation as a source of fear in Doris Lessing's writing. Much of Doris Lessing's writing revolves around the topic of shaping, re-shaping or breaking up of diverse forms of social structure. E. g. in The Cleft the author creates her own version of the beginnings of human civilisation; in Memoirs of the Survivor she predicts the cultural breakdown of the Western world; in Mara and Dann she sees a future civilisation as a reminder of our prehistoric past. My focus is on these aspects of Doris Lessing's novels that are concerned with fear as an inherent element of civilisation at every stage of its existence.

Lessing's protagonists suffer from a prolonged exposure to fear, which it entails some symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Through trauma narrative the fear is represented as an overwhelming force, as the characters are often unable to grasp the meaning of their experience. In my paper, I discuss how the features of trauma narrative in Doris Lessing's writing enhance the representation of civilisation and its effect on human psyche.

Robert Kielawski

Philological School of Higher Education in Wrocław, Poland

Exposing the Fear of Politics and Struggling to Move Beyond Criticism Without Foundations. Some Reflections on the Art of Mark Ravenhill

Among the many facets of Mark Ravenhill's dramaturgy, I would like to address his handling of the problems of politics. With his dramatic gaze firmly fixed on individuals in a broader social and ideological context, Ravenhill makes use of various dramatic and thematic means to explore the apolitical consumer society-means ranging from interests in popular culture, media and technology, through references to philosophy and cultural theory, to such issues as need of sadomasochistic practices of bodily mutilation. Thus referring to the ideas of such cultural theorists and philosophers as Jean Baudrillard and Slavoj Žižek, as well as to more theatre-oriented ideas on the politics of (post)drama formulated by Hans-Theis Lehmann in Postdramatic Theatre, I seek to read Ravenhill's work as attempts to stage the erasure of the political and the disempowerment of the subject. Despite much ambivalence behind his plays, I hope to consider Ravenhill's drama as a project of committed leftist politics, which shows not only in his often broad social(ist) perspective, but also in his notable metadramatic engagement with cultural theory.

Slawomir Konkol

University of Bielsko-Biała, Poland

What Else is Civilization For? Narration as a Aeans of Overcoming Fear and Trauma in Graham Swift

Tom Crick, the narrator of Graham Swift's best known novel, Waterland, calls history "the dispeller of fears of the dark", seeing the need to narrate as an expression of a typically human desire to impose order on reality. For many of Swift's protagonists, great and personal narratives are a method of overcoming the trauma of experience and of the overwhelming meaninglessness of unmediated reality. Fragmented and repetitive, the structure of Swift's narratives represents the characters' sense of being trapped in traumatic temporality which refuses linear development and separated from the world. While mourning the impossibility of retrieving original wholeness, Swift's novels celebrate the contingency of the human condition since the protagonists' efforts at overcoming fear can only be temporary and tentative. At the same time, the status of narrative is questioned as morally ambiguous, potentially violent and responsible for the irreversible involvement in temporality. This paper will examine both approaches to storytelling and constructing rational explanations of reality in several novels of Graham Swift.

Maria Korusiewicz

University of Bielsko-Biała, Poland

Between Fields of Fear and Gardens of Compassion; the Approach to Nature in Western and Japanese traditions

The cursory survey of cultural conditioning of the experience of nature in the Western and East Asian traditions reveals a general contrast between regarding nature as external, potentially threatening, phenomenal world, and seeing both nature and humans as the continuum of common existence.

Responsibility for the Western hostility and fear of nature is ascribed to Augustinian Christianity, Plato's ontology, and eventually - capitalism. Japanese (instead of Descartes, Newton, or the rationalistic visions of Enlightenment) have had shintoistic tradition of reverence toward all beings and Buddhist tradition of Kukai and Dogen who claimed that the Buddha-nature belongs to both sentient and non-sentient beings in the totality of the universum.

However, in the perspective of contemporary ecological problems the utopian image of Japanese approach to nature qualified as eco-centric, non-violent and spiritual appears to be far from reality. On the other hand, Western tradition seen as anthropocentric, violent, directed toward technological control and governed by greed develops new tools of environmental ethics, green aesthetics or deep ecology, paradoxically, having close parallels in ancient East-Asian thought.

The aim of the planned paper is to characterize briefly the impact of Western and East Asian traditions on our contemporary experience of nature and the possible quest for a 'middle path' resolving the tension between civilization and what we have used to call 'the environment'.

Monika Kowalczyk

University of Silesia, Poland

Exposing the Fear: Jason Elliot's "Unexpected light" on the (Un)civilised

Throughout the ages, West-European civilisation has managed to create seemingly undeterred foundations. Thus, any element potentially capable of jeopardizing its meticulously intertwined structures often evokes the inexplicable feeling of fear. In the face of the unknown the feeling intensifies, as the unfamiliar usually goes beyond the limits of the commonly acknowledged real. Perhaps it is precisely the unlimited capacity for continual expansion slumbered in reality, that intimidates the Western civilisation.

Nonetheless, the threatening properties of the uncanny do not seem to deter members of the "civilised Western societies" from exploring and examining it. On the contrary, the uncanny appears to entice them to further explorations; attract them with its potential danger. The numerous peregrinations to the Eastern "unclivilised" lands, perpetuated on the pages of travel reportages, constitute an excellent example of the seductive power of fear.

Anna Krawczyk-Łaskarzewska

UWM in Olsztyn, Poland

"Seek and Ye Shall Mind" - the Mechanisms of Online Exposure

In this paper I will comment on the increased online presence of conspiracist and/or synchrony-seeking webpages in the first decade of the new millennium. Fuelled by fears related to terrorism, surveillance, and signs of collapse of the global financial system, these Internet sites have shown remarkably similar, suspicious/hostile attitudes towards a variety of issues, e.g. global warming research, government-imposed vaccination programs, alleged diabolical pacts made by global elites concerning mind and population control, the influence of the Illuminati and all things occult, etc.

The content of such blogs as The Vigilant Citizen, best known for analyses of symbol-laden pop music videos and films, The Secret Sun, which aims at establishing cosmo-mythological convergences, or Cryptogon.com, with its unabashedly antiestablishment agenda, oscillates between nearly apophenic modes of perception and extremely pessimistic diagnoses of the present cultural and sociopolitical moment. Their revelations rely on the conviction that greedy, corrupted governments and corporations can no longer be successfully controlled by the society, yet the fear of enslavement and subordination they so often express proves to be a double-edged weapon manipulating the readers' sound judgment even further.

Pondering upon Jason Elliot's travelogue: An unexpected light: travels in Afghanistan, in the context of philosophical stances addressing the issue of mutual dependence between civilisation and fear, the article aims at illustrating the unique encounter of two distinct realities. It also constitutes an attempt to analyse the rhetorical measures used by the author in his reportage descriptions, and thus to expose the act of wiritng as a form of taming the new reality and coping with its threatening features.

Sławomir Kuźnicki

Foreign Language Teacher Training College in Opole, Poland

Civilization Renewal Project - the Ultimate Solution of Margaret Atwood's Oryx and Crake

Biotechnology is nowadays a highly controversial issue: moving forward human life (e.g. in the field of medicine), it also brings some potential future dangers. That is why Margaret Atwood made biotechnology the central theme of her dystopian Oryx and Crake (2003). Outlining many a problem concerning the commercialisation of life (e.g. overwhelming consumerism, economical gaps among different social groups, online pornography), she mainly questions morality of genetic engineering procedures. As a result, she proposes a revolutionary shift, an apocalypse, after which the old order ceases to exist and there becomes a heaven on earth. However, her way seems ironic as her post-apocalyptic world is far from being utopian: old problems, like the greenhouse effect, prevail and there appear some completely new ones, closely linked with the genetic experiments of the previous civilization. Definitely, this new Garden of Eden tastes bitter-sweet.

This presentation is going to focus on the Canadian writer's motifs and reasons for annihilating our present and long-lasting civilization, but also to point out why the new version of the world, although thought over and logically manufactured, has no real chances of succeeding.

Karolina Lebek

University of Silesia, Poland

The Fear of Atheism and Natural Philosophy in Early Modern England

The paper looks at various examples of programmatic treatises on natural philosophy from the point of view of their engagement with the question of atheism. In an anticipatory discursive strategy such writers as Francis Bacon, Thomas Browne, Thomas Sprat or Robert Boyle, actively sought to refute possible future accusations of an irreverent search for natural knowledge. The question why they felt compelled to do it will not be of interest to the paper as the problem of atheism and philosophy has been simmeringly alive since Classical Antiquity (i.e. Aristophanes' representation of Socrates in The Clouds) and as such, thoroughly discussed elsewhere. The paper focuses rather on the side effects the fear of being accused of atheism had on natural philosophy as it forced the philosophers in question to address broader epistemological and methodological concerns. Those concerns revolved around the problem of the potential sinfulness of the desire to know and thus led to interesting differentiations between various types of knowledge, to debates around man's cognitive capabilities, and to discussions about the ends of scientific endeavor. In other words, the fear of atheism led to methodological shifts and redefinitions. But all those issues had yet another interesting effect: as offshoots of those epistemological concerns there emerged intricate definitions of atheism itself, rhetorically implying to the readers that the terms natural philosophy and atheism were mutually exclusive.

Tadeusz Lewandowski

Opole University, Poland

Terrorist's Fears: Theodore Kaczynski's Industrial Society and Its Future

On September 19, 1995 The New York Times published Industrial Society and Its Future, a 35,000-word essay soon dubbed the "Unabomber Manifesto." Its author was Theodore Kaczynski (1942-), a neo-Luddite terrorist responsible for a long series of mail bombings across the United States that had taken three lives and resulted in twenty-three injuries. Kaczynski was no ordinary madman. A child mathematics prodigy, he was admitted to Harvard at age sixteen, and later became the youngest professor ever hired at the University of California, Berkeley. However, after two years of teaching he moved to a remote cabin in Montana with no electricity or running water, where he launched his bombing campaign in 1978 after his favorite spot in the forest was cut down to build a highway. By 1995 Kaczynski was ready to make his anti-technology ideology public. He sent Industrial Society and Its Future to The New York Times, threatening that if it were not published more bombings would ensue. The manifesto expressed Kaczynski's multitude of fears concerning scientific development, and designated the "industrial-technological system" as the source mankind's downfall, which would eventually lead to the total destruction of human freedom. This paper will analyze the "Unabomber Manifesto" and the often rational fears that inspired Kaczynski's deadly insanity.

Ewa Łukaszyk

Warsaw Univeristy, Poland

Intrusive Spirit of the Desert. The Metaphor of Nomad in the Late-modern Thinking on Civilization

The desert and the figure of nomad seems to play an increasingly important role as the intersection point of the fears and fantasies about the end of civilization. In Star Wars, the desert-like outer regions were the dwelling place of the unpredictable Tusken the Sandpeople and the Jedi themselves, what can be read as a metaphor of close kinship between the intellectual; the rebel, and the nomad. For Deleuze, la machine de guerre nomade; provides the model of an intellectual attack against the Oedipal triangle identified with the world of the totalising, sole and exclusive Truth. Instigating the forces of chaos and bringing them to the Centre meant to him a promise of enlivening change and liberating pluralism. The metaphor of desert appeared in many other places and meanings, from Derrida to Agata Bielik-Robson, becoming a key for understanding the late modernity as a whole. What fascinates me is the position of the intellectual, located on the outskirts, outside the City, and in opposition to the civilization understood as a sedentary, ordered world, immersed in a linear time. The intellectual is associated with all what is nomadic, unpredictable and anachronistic. Is this still an echo of the Romantic spirit of revolution, dreaming about the civilization in ruins, on which something new could be build, or rather the prelude of a new modus of the culture, the stage of a permanent Exodus? This problem implies a reconsideration on the notion of civilization, which, in these parameters, seems to become its own antithesis.

Mikolaj Marcela

University of Silesia, Poland

The Return of the Living Dead: Zombies and the Process of Growing Old

Michel Vovelle points out that the process of growing old appears as one of the most horrible threats for Western Civilization. Hidden and repressed it returns in the figure of zombie in the Romero's classic movie series. The "living dead" truly returns to the cinema in 1968 (Night of the Living Dead) -the year in which Jean Amèry issues his essay On Growing Old. From its perspective it becomes obvious that slow and unproductive zombies, "the living dead" which crave only for consumption, represent the senior citizens society that endangers contemporary culture of youth, beauty and health. Simon Clark regards the bloodstained mouth of zombie as a variation of vagina dentata and Maria Bonaparte notices that it is a symbol of castration and impotence. This is why the living dead are so frightening: it is the return of the repressed but this time the repression comes not from modern institutions and establishment but from the core of the "youth" counter-culture of the 60s which in some way funded our postmodern culture. The paper explores the return of the living dead as the return of the process of growing old.

Constantinos Maritsas

Sofia University, Bulgaria

Love as Metamorphosis of Violence

The purpose of the paper is to show violence as the integral property of any living being.

The author interprets Darwin's principle about impossibility of reproduction among animals which are limited in their natural environment.

One of the aims of civilization is to provide a controlled portion of violence to the community members. If the portions are too small then uncontrolled violence appears in different forms of criminality and self-destruction. In countries without virtual violence the terrorism and 'suicide' bombers are born.

For the male the aim of violence is a feeling of victory. In the nature only the winner has the right to reproduction. In a civilized society each male has the right to reproduction and the necessity to feel himself as a winner. Civilization is the survival of the unfittest. And survival means right for reproduction.

Civilization has turned the bite between men into a kiss between men ("men winner") and women ("men defeated"), the kick between men - into a caress between men and women and, finally, the violence between men into love between male and female. In the civilization a male is winner and a female simulates the defeated male.

Nowadays, man experiences not only violence but its substitute in such forms as movie, sports, arts, porno and love. The movies with violence provide the portions of violence to people who need it. In sports, everyone identifies with the winner in order to obtain the reproduction right.

We can define love as a substitute of violence in civilization like the metamorphosis of violence.

Tomasz Markiewka

University of Bielsko-Biała, Poland

Borderlines of Fear. Greeks and the Others in Teodor Parnicki's Historical Novel The End of "The Concord of Nations"

The End of "The Concord of Nations" (Koniec "Zgody Narodów", Paris 1955) marks a turning point in the development of Teodor Parnicki's oeuvre, being the transition from a classical mode of historical narrative towards more experimental, sophisticated forms of dialogic and epistolary anti-novel. Inspired by the works of W Tarn (The Greeks in Bactria and India, Cambridge 1938) and St Petersburg's Hermitage's collection of Bactrian coins, the novel presents a post-Hellenistic kingdom of Bactria in the state of decline and fall. The action takes place in 179 BC on an immense steamship "The Concord of Nations of the Heart of Asia" sailing on the river Oxus. The Bactrian Kingdom and the ship itself metaphorically represent the multinational, multicultural melting pot in which Greeks, aware of losing their identity, are trying to reinforce their civilization and cultural heritage in the presence of the influential Iranian, Indian and Chinese cultures and, last but not least, the barbarian tribes from the vast northern steppes. Many borderlines are being drawn, marking the divisions between West and East, North and South, between languages, religions, literatures, technologies, mentalities and sensitivities. In the world of constant and profound fear the protagonist, half-Greek, half-Jewish adolescent Leptines is caught in the network of secret services and, being constantly interrogated, starts a bizarre and traumatic quest for self identity. The paper examines the clash of civilizations and cultures which is dramatized and internalized in Leptines, who embodies the situation in which the borderline between "I" (Greek) and "the Other(s)" falls within the protagonist's self.

Gabriela Marszołek

University of Silesia, Poland

"Fetch me my Feathers and Amber." Notes on Civilization and the Primitive

"If civilization is the exploiter,
the masses is nature,
and the party is the poets."

Gary Snyder

"Class-structured civilized society is a kind of mass ego. To transcend the ego is to go beyond society as well. "Beyond" there lies, inwardly, the unconscious. Outwardly, the equivalent of the unconscious is the wilderness: both of these terms meet, one step even farther on, as one." In "Poetry and the Primitive," Gary Snyder says that part of our being modern means to be "contemporary with all periods;" it is to be one with our own beginnings, since civilizations do not "rise and fall," but absorb, bloom, burst, and scatter their seed. Therefore, "civilization is, so to speak, a lack of faith, a human laziness, a willingness to accept the perceptions and decisions of others in place of your own - to be less than a full man."

In my paper, I would like to present Snyder's standpoints on the notion of civilization in relation to the native American theme of hunting magic. Gary Snyder, influenced by Stanley Diamond and Claude-Lévi Strauss, presents modern man as the one who has failed to understand the richness and complexity of ancient cultures.

Sławomir Masłoń

University of Silesia, Poland

"Thy Neighbour as Thyself: Fear as Social Link"

One of the ways to characterize modernity is to refer to its creation of the image of individual interiority as something most precious and "ownmost." However, what is found at the bottom of such interiority is what Romanticism perhaps invented the perfect image for in the Double who is exactly like myself yet completely different and infinitely (inexplicably) evil. The origin of subjectivity is therefore split; in other words, it is founded on the gap that allows for the impossible (freedom). In contrast, in postmodern social constructivism the self is perceived as a series of masks donned by neutral and natural support: because there is no substantial subjectivity, (ideally) everybody is free to adopt "personality" at will. The aim of this is "increase in being and joy," that is, "happiness." But the obverse side of this official discourse is "victimology" - everything the other does which is not exactly what I expect of him is treated as an attack on my rights and makes me unhappy. The meaning of happiness is therefore established: everybody should become like everybody else. The culture of "respect for the other" is founded on the fear of the Evil Other as substance.

Przemysław Michalski

Pedagogical University in Kraków, Poland

Original Sin, Fear and Metaphysical Poetry

In my paper I would like to discuss the problem of the relationship between original sin and fear in metaphysical poetry. First I will briefly outline the history of the doctrine of original sin, its origin, its evolution through the ages and its potentially devastating effects on one's psyche. Then I will move on to investigate differences in the treatment of this subject in the poetry of John Donne, George Herbert, Henry Vaughan and Thomas Traherne; I will also discuss transformations within the life and work of the same poet, e.g. radically different approach to this question of the young rake "Jack Donne", and the mature dean of St. Paul's Cathedral.

The question I will try to answer in my paper is to what extent the legacy of the doctrine of original sin informed the poetry of the above-mentioned metaphysical poets, and how far it shaped their general Weltanschauung. I will also look briefly at some 20th century poets and see whether more contemporary writers, e.g. T. S. Eliot, still consider this doctrine as relevant to the condition humaine of the modern man and the crisis of European civilization.

Alina Mitek-Dziemba

University of Silesia, Poland

The Waning of Experience? (Neo)Pragmatism and Its Pastoralist Fears

The paper will aim at analyzing the philosophical thought of neo-Deweyans, a loosely connected group of thinkers following in the footsteps of the father of pragmatist aesthetics and education theory, yet united in their opposition to the Rortian interpretation of Dewey's oeuvre (scholars such as Richard Shusterman, John McDermott or Larry Hickman), whose main concern is the problematization of experience as the cornerstone of philosophical theory. The tendency to follow the Deweyan attempt at conceiving a peculiarly American metaphysics of experience, both with respect to natural-cultural environment and the increasingly technologized human corporeality, will be shown as informed by what American literary critics refer to as pastoralism, a desire to return to a mythic natural quality of both the environing world and a human being. The fear of the waning of experience, a possible remnant of pastoral ideology, seems however to be also involved in the reorientation of traditional aesthetics towards a more ecocentric way of approaching aesthetic phenomena, including natural and somatic beauty.

Jacek Mydla

University of Silesia, Poland

Fear En-aesthetised

The paper inquires into the progress of what may be called aesthetics of fear, which has to basic, independent though closely related sides: textual and perceptive (or receptive). To the first of the two are related inquiries into those elements in a given work of art which produce fear in the recipient of this work; to the other, inquiries into the reception & response processes, i.e. "happenings" in the mind of the reader (if the work in question is a literary one). Theory of aesthetised fear received especially strong impetus with Edmund Burke's recognition and legitimisation of terror, but even with the vigorous growth of Gothic fiction it never went far beyond some very crude if basic observations and distinctions, such as that between terror and horror proposed by Ann Radcliffe. Thus, much of the aesthetics of (pleasing, delightful) terror as well as its changes need to be reconstructed on the basis of the body of the existing texts which have been written with the aim, to use Mary Shelley's words, to "frighten the reader," and which - to use much more contemporary terminology - construct their fearful implied readers. In the paper special attention is paid to the developments of this aesthetics in nineteenth-century sensation fiction.

Dominika Oramus

Warsaw University, Poland

Gods for the Final Days. Selected Religious Systems Devised by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. and Philip K. Dick

In the mid-20th century in the West the political atmosphere of insecurity spawned religious radicalism and made more and more people pay heed to preachers announcing the approaching doom. The former pulp fantasy writer L. Ron Hubbard devised and marketed a new religion, the Church of Scientology, which became popular first among science fiction fans and then universally, thus proving that the human race is gullible and does need religious systems. Bitter satires on such needs were also written e.g., in: Kurt Vonnegut Jr.'s postmodernist novels Sirens of Titan, Cat's Cradle and Slapstick which describe new religions (the Church of God the Utterly Indifferent, Bokononism, and the Church of Jesus Christ the Kidnapped). Philip K Dick devised religious systems, Mercerism, and belief in the Four Manifestations of God in the short story "The Little Black Box" and novels Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep and A Maze of Death. This paper compares these religions in order to show how they take advantage of human fear and anxiety and what they offer to their followers.

Kamilla Pawlikowska

University of Kent, Canterbury, UK

Fearing of the Inside: Neurological Terror in Victorian Literature

Early neurology not only describes sensation as a mechanism of data processing but also reveals its enigmatic nature (William Carpenter, Principles of Mental Physiology -1874). Sensation represented in a literary text in the first sense produces 'low sensationalism'; sensation in the second sense evokes mystery and generates 'high sensationalism'. Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) and Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897) use neurology in the second sense to stimulate imagination through the feelings of inscrutability, fear, and terror. They dematerialize the self and endow it with a new 'scientific' spirituality. Thus, neurology as a product of Victorian civilization becomes the source of sublime and neo-gothic representations of the self; Stevenson and Stoker react against the 'high-cultured', civilized representations of the self and sensation such as in George Eliot's novels. Eliot understands sensation as 'depending wholly upon the senses' (Locke) and as a writer attempts to render it comprehensible and psychologically convincing. In this paper I will argue that the neo-gothic strategies of high 'neurological sensationalism' are utilized by writers to produce terror and that the language of neurology sanctions the shift from external sources of fear to the self as its 'internal' source. I will emphasize the defiant character of these techniques by comparing them to George Eliot's representations of knowable self.

Michalina Juta Pelczar

University of Silesia, Poland

The Unbelievable Terror of Female(and Female) Sex

In my paper I would like to discuss the themes of the female terror/ists, predatory females and monstrous dykes. My intention is not only to relate to the 'monstrous feminine' but also to Patraka's notion of binary terror and sketch the relations between (pre)conceptions of femininity (or femaleness), female homosexuality and terror as exemplified, among others, by Fatal Attraction film, the character of Lisbeth Salander from Stieg Larsson's best-selling trilogy Millenium as well as the main protagonist of the film Hard Candy. I am going to discuss the role radical feminism and radical lesbianism played in redefining the female terror but also utilize the category of the uncanny. I will turn to such figures as Valerie Solanas (SCUM), Ulrike Meinhof (and the Baader-Meinhof group phenomenon) and Bruce LaBruce's film Raspberry Reich and his rendition of Ulrike Meinhoff. I intend to briefly trace the coding of lesbianism as monstrous discussing the phantasms of the lesbian vampire, the predatory dyke and the brutal butch in Western (pop) culture using such examples as Jesus Franco's films or the lesbian TV series The L word. My final aim is to present the attempts at rehabilitating the term 'monstrous' and women's reclaiming monstrosity as subversive strategy.

Izabella Penier

The University of Humanities and Economics in Lódz, Poland

The Black Atlantic Zombie. National Schisms and Utopian Diasporas in Edwidge Danticat's The Dew Breaker

My paper discusses the book The Dew Breaker by the Haitian American writer Edwidge Danticat, considered the chief spokesperson for Haitian diaspora in the USA. This collection of short stories deals with terror and trauma caused by the horrifying system of repression, predation and impoverishment brought by the Duvalier terrorist regime (1957-86). It addresses the theme of the subjection and dehumanization of Haitians through a new Haitian aesthetics of degradation whose most salient trope is that of a torturer who is a zombie par excellence - "a madman pushed outside the ranks of normalcy by certain endemic calamities of Haitian history." Zombification is a mechanism of terror and debasement that turns Danticat's protagonists into the living dead, caught in the liminality between life and death and deprived of the self, human dignity and freedom. The trope zombification, as I am going to demonstrate, is a construction through which Danticat interrogates the working of a terrorist state. I will argue that Danticat outlines paths to renewal without falling back on the rhetoric of transnationalism, eulogized by postcolonial critics as "a corrective measure to homeland politics." Diasporic formations in Danticat's collection are "fractured landscapes" where not only victims but petty criminals find refuge. They are places where fear plunges survivors into the very darkness from which they have emerged.

Maciej Piątek

Jagiellonian University, Poland

Fears and Fictions of Samuel Beckett

The paper is an interpretation of Samuel Beckett's short stories (The Calmative, The Expelled) and dramaticules (That Time, Footfalls) as literary expressions arising from the overwhelming feeling of fear. In psychology creating fictions is a well known way of dealing with unbearable reality, a sort of escapism that allows one to cope with what is fearful and uncanny. For Beckett the human subject is driven to making up stories in order to create a sense of stable identity for itself and as a way to explain, however illusory that explanation may be, the inexplicable. That is how Beckett, following Vico's Scienzia nuova, perceives the function of literature in general. His own writing show that creating fictions to repress fear is on the one hand necessary, but on the other this process is bound to failure in the postmodern age. Beckett's texts do not speak about this failure in a descriptive mode - they actually stage this failure by their own structure and meaning which remain always on the verge of collapsing. These works are "not about something", they are "that something itself", as young Beckett himself wrote about Joyce's Finnegans Wake.

Wit Pietrzak

University of Łódź, Poland

The Anxiety of the Dearth of Context. An Attempt at Constituting the Subject in Literary Culture

Richard Rorty sees our culture, bereft of essentialism, as predicated on the broadly-conceived idea of literature. In his literary culture it is the knowledge of as many vocabularies, both of poetry and prose, as feasible that allows one to function effectively. Yet the notion of fear, even though hinted at, is given little space in his writings. If literary culture is to be accepted as a defining concept of the present-day world, it s also a definition infused with an inherent scare of the flux in that the subject living in literary culture experiences the world in its malleable variety unaided by any defenses apart from those coming from his knowledge of literature. Rorty posits novels as the necessary means to countering possible horrors of oppression. However, it is in poetry that the subject exposed to the flux may find the source of a strong language: if the novel is a prerequisite to increasing one's liberalism, poetry constitutes a repository of vocabularies that may help recontextualise one's view of the real. While novels teach us to talk to various people, poetry teaches us to confront the horror of the world denuded of essentials, ideals and idols. In this paper the capacity of poetry as a vehicle for recontextualising the world and thus countering the fear of the reality is analysed; it is then argued that this poetic recontextualisation forms a central tenet of the constitution of the anxiety-ridden modern subject.

Artur Piskorz

Pedagogical University in Kraków, Poland

From 9/11 to 7/7 and Beyond. Fear, Fanatics and Film

The objective of the paper is to analyse selected filmic representations of social and individual fears and anxieties caused by the terrorist attacks in New York (2001) and London (2007). The text takes into consideration a variety of perspectives adopted by the filmmakers after the attacks and analyses the means they have used in order to express often contradictory ideas. This variety of perspectives has resulted in creating a blurred and unclear filmic image of the attacks. This in consequence, gives rise to the question of whether screen images simply reflect social fears, or whether they have contributed to the process of stirring up fear and anxiety. The paper scrutinizes a variety of filmic productions ranging from Hollywood movies depicting the dramatic events in New York (WTC, United 93) to the films made after the attacks in London (Yasmin, London River).

Brian Reis

National Coalition of Independent Scholars, USA

Deeper Darkness: Nihilism, the Numinousand the Fear of the Dionysian Ultimate in H.P. Lovecraft

This paper attempts to link philosophy's greatest fear: nihilism, with theology's greatest bastion: the numinous, in the context of horror writer H.P. Lovecraft's "dionysian" fiction. In Lovecraft, nihilism and the numinous are distilled into a world of alien gods that are beyond human, and cannot be discerned accurately through human means. This quality of Lovecraft corresponds directly to Rudolf Otto's idea of the numinous as the submission to that which is non-human, the knowledge of createdness before the supreme powers of the universe. Yet, it also borrows from Frederich Nietzsche's ambivalent critique of this view, that this is nihilism, yet it is also the final result of humanity's collective thought process, a deference to Dionysus. Thus, in Lovecraft, where man's natural urge to submit himself to the numinous comes with the dissociation of knowledge, the process of human thought erodes with each passing discovery of the indication of a being that cannot be known. Fear, then, of the ultimate, is the fear of total annihilation, hence nihilism, but propels man forward in his futile quest for knowledge. This will either drive him mad, and annihilate him mentally, or for fear of this development, annihilate him culturally, where he will flee into "the new dark age."

Garry Robson

Jagiellonian University, Poland

Fear, Loathing and Long-Term Millenial Anxiety: Mapping the Fragments of 'Broken Britain'

Contemporary Britain, it will be argued, is a society in which a particular strain of millenial anxiety and set of worries about civilisational breakdown are proving to be durable rather than temporary features of public debate and everyday reality. This reality is characterised by media representations of a number of overlapping discourses of social unease and public articulations of fear, loathing, mistrust and resentment. Most significant among these are the 'Broken Britain' thesis and claims about social fragmentation and demoralisation; growing popular resentment of the new liberal progressive 'elites' and PC culture; fear of an emerging white working/underclass enthusiasm for far- right politics and the British National Party; debates about the changing character of British society connected to immigration and emigration; and a domestic version of the 'clash of civilisations' thesis in terms of debates about the 'Islamification' of Britain. The paper will attempt to clarify this complex web of public fears and anxieties by mapping the different strands, illustrating their interconnections and identifying just who is fearing, loathing, mistrusting and resenting whom in a period of acute social and cultural instability.

Michał Różycki

Warsaw University, Poland

The Science of Conspiracy - The Fear of Technology in Contemporary Conspiracy Theory Narratives

They are all around us. Spy satellites can read the letters of the magazines we read on the streets, while unmarked black helicopters are hovering only to release a unit of brainwashed super-soldiers. We are powerless against this oppression, rendered meek and subdued by the drugs in our tap water, the so-called vaccines and subliminal messages in the media.

A mistrust of machinery has been a constant companion to our culture since the Industrial Revolution, and in extreme cases led violent protest, or even bloodshed. Today, despite the everyday contact with of science, we can still be mistrustful of it, like the peasant mob hunting the Monster in the 1931 movie interpretation of Frankenstein.

My paper will try to present the fear of technology as depicted in conspiracy theory narratives of the 20th century, a showcase of which opened this abstract. Since Nikolai Tesla's frustrated attempts to create a "death ray", many conspiracies and secret societies were presented as having access to secret, highly advanced technology, used solely to control the human race. The paper will concentrate on fringe reports of those devices and advances which, while seemingly beneficial and safe, were reinterpreted as dangerous by conspiracy theorists.

Horst Ruthrof

Murdoch University, Australia

In Fear of Reason
Keynote address

The paper addresses the question of what has happened to the evolution of reason since the European Enlightenment. Under the heading Vernunftspaltung, the splitting of reason, I list some of the achievements made by the end of the eighteenth century in distinguishing between various forms of reason. The paper then turns to a number of critiques of Enlightenment reason, Husserl's critique of 'objectivism' in his 1935 Vienna Lecture, Adorno and Horckheimer's The Dialectic of the Enlightenment, Heidegger's The Question Concerning Technology, and to some remarks made by Lyotard. In a section entitled 'The deep fears of Osama bin Laden' I ask what the deep motivation is for the rejection by Islamism of both advanced Islamic thought and Western political development, apart from the declared opposition to apostate Arabic states, the recreation of the umma, and the freeing of holy lands from the Crusaders. As a tentative answer I suggest the latest form of instrumental reason, the electronic transmutation of Boolean logic and its impact on the human mind. In conclusion, I compare comments made by Derrida and Habermas on the 'age of terror' in an attempt to draw out the kind of reason they advocate as a basis for intercultural trust.

Marcin Sarnek

University of Silesia, Poland

You Wouldn't Steal a Movie. Copyrights Intimidation Campaigns and New Models of Prospective Punishment

As documented by the annual IFPI Digital Music Report 2009, musical content providers focus in their fight against 'piracy' on three concurrent key strategies. One is the vigorous reorganization of the digital music market, marked by the ever-growing significance of network based distribution channels. Another is the global litigation against suspected individual copyright infringers, and against organizations facilitating copyright infringement. Still another is a wide 'educational effort' to raise awareness of legitimate and illegitimate uses of the cultural product; this effort centers on schools and other educational institutions, yet it is, obviously, most manifest in numerous media campaigns. These three strategies have proved locally successful, to move several European governments to consider abolishing a whole class of software (Peer-to-Peer), while in many other societies this software has been stigmatized as potentially illegal and definitely immoral. Also, these three strategies have provoked significant objections worldwide, since, for example, they often tend to represent legal behavior as immoral and repulsive. It has been, then, nearly officially acknowledged that it became a major policy of the 'entertainment sector' to intimidate both individuals and organizations into acceptable behavior by applying a mechanism of coercion which extends parallel to the lobbying for stricter copyright regulations. My paper aims, then, to analyze the tensions present in intellectual property debates in the context of these intimidation practices, and to place them in a wider social and cultural context to consider their relationship to the prospective theories of punishment.

David Schauffler

University of Silesia, Poland

A Spectacle is Hauntng Europe: Guy Debord and the Fear of Money

Guy Debord's The Society of the Spectacle (1967) is remarkable for three compositional peculiarities: first, its coinage and valorization of a single term ("spectacle" or "the spectacular") which is constantly invoked but nowhere sufficiently defined; second, an aphoristic style which eschews developed argument; and third, the absence of either analysis or prognostication. My paper shows how these three elements are linked to each other and to the key philosophical movement of the book. As a former "situationist" and inheritor of the artistic radicalism of the modernist period, Debord was concerned to translate this radicalism into the socio-political realm without vitiating its essential voluntarism or subordinating its autonomy to broader economic or political forces. These forces appear in Debord, therefore, as themselves mere "phenomena." Meanwhile their phenomenal appearance, i.e. the commodity form of social relations, is reinterpreted by Debord as the noumenal or unanalyzable essence of contemporary civilization, just as the term "spectacle" itself serves as his basic, unanalyzable intellectual commodity. Debord is thereby able to mount a stinging Marxist indictment of capitalist society which avoids any account of the economic structure of that society, and which in fact reproduces that structure in intellectual terms. My paper then briefly relates this analysis of The Society of the Spectacle to other trends in cultural and social theory.

Dorota Sobstel

Warsaw University, Poland

Black Pearls of Fear - Andrea Assaf's Eleven Reflections on September

Eleven Reflections on September by Andrea Assaf (performer, writer, director, educator and activist) is a series of poems dealing with the paradoxical, often painful experience of being both Arab and American in this time, since September 11th 2001. She describes herself as "a hybrid artist from a hybrid generation". Born in mid 70s from a Lebanese-American father and European-American mother, Assaf carries a civilization hybridity which is often intertwined with fear, however, what comes from her poetry is hope for a solution ingrained in the notion of "beauty". In the preface to The Blacks Genet wrote: "But what does black really mean. And above all, what is its colour?". In Eleven Reflections on September Andrea Assaf shows the shades of blackness in fear and trauma of terrorist, the Middle Eastern disquietude, asking the question "Are we still waiting for the Barbarians?" again and again until language disintegrates. She also portrays how femininity does not always exist in the eyes of a man, just as blackness does not exist only for whites.

Assaf's words are like black pearls arranged in an ikebana of verse, sophisticated and refined and yet talking about fear-manufacturing, oppressive mechanisms of culture, the lack of space for tolerance, giving hope through aesthetic principles. Fear becomes displaced by poems, which, for their part, occupy the "...more disembodied realm of the mind, the mind of the poet, the place where language functions differently and deconstructions and multiple realities are present all the time".

Eric Starnes

PWSZ Racibórz, Poland

Mr. Turner's Fantasies and Fears: The Turner Diaries and White Fear in America

Nativist fears in American society have been expressed in many forms, the most recent of which was the 1995 bombing of the Federal building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, in which over 150 people were killed, 650 wounded and until, Sept. 11th, 2001, was the worst act of terrorism committed on American soil. The perpetrators of the bombing were inspired in part by the 'bible' of the extreme right, The Turner Diaries. This novel, along with Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf serves as the main inspiration for the far-right, nativist, violent White Separatist movement in the United States.

Recent events have created a climate of fear and worse, paranoia among the conservative white population within the U. S., namely the 2008 victory of Barack Obama, the first minority to be elected president, the collapse of the manufacturing sector which causes massive unemployment, and the break neck speed of technological change. These events have combined to produce exceedingly vocal, violent, 'patriotic' fringe groups, whose overriding message of fear, paranoia, and racism tinged with a dash of Apocolyptic Christianity create an atmosphere among certain sectors of white society that border on the hysterical. Admittedly, the fears of these groups are mostly expressed through radio talk shows and on television, literature within the 'movement' being mostly confined to polemics and political essays. Fiction, as a means of carrying the message of the movement are few and far between but are important in examining the rise of the movement, its underpinnings and more importantly, the novels cast a light on the hopes, fears and aspirations of these groups.

The literature of these fringe groups [sometimes referred to as the 'Militia' movement, the white separatist movement, or simply as the movement by members of these groups] has been largely ignored by scholars; however, their literature [what little of it there is] needs to be examined if they and more importantly, the malaise, social Neo-Ludditism and overall fear within American society is to be understood. This article examines the theoretical and practical uderpinnings of what is arguably the most taboo genre within American literature, the literature of the American white separatist movement. Like its predecessors, The Turner Diaries and the other novels of the genre express the frustration and fear over a lost, mythical past within American history; a past where only white men reigned supreme.

Joanna Stolarek

University of Silesia, Poland

Killing for the Sake of Healing? - a Political, Philosophical and Psychological Dimension of Genocide in Martin Amis's Time's Arrow

The aim of this paper is to scrutinize a political, psychological and ethical aspect of genocide in Martin Amis's Time's Arrow. During the presentation of Amis's work I am going to depict a psychological portrait of a Nazi doctor, his participation in the extermination of Jews, atrocoius medical experiments and crimes committed for the sake of the Nazi ideology. I am going to demonstate how the British writer delineates the fall of man, of modern and postmodern Western civilisation whose roots go back to the first half of the 20th century, particularly to the modernist philosophy of progress, technological advancement, cultural hegemony, the exclusion of any religious and ethnical minorities propagaded mostly yet not exclusively in Nazi Germany. In my paper I am going to focus, on the one hand, on the psychology of crime, on the discrimination and extermination of the Jewish nation, German political and cultural hegemony during World War II and , on the other hand, on the problem of people's awareness, understanding of and sensibility to the Holocaust after World War II. During the presentation of Amis's novel I will also refer to such writers and philosophers as Robert Jay Lifton, Vladimir Nabokov or Jean-Francois Lyotard.

Nurseli Yesim Sünbüloglu

University of Sussex, UK

Literary Representations of Anxieties and Fears about Modernisation in Turkey (1940-50)

1940-1950 was a period in which Turkey went through profound social, political, and economic changes. The reactions of the masses as well as the intellectuals towards these changes can be regarded as an intersection of discontent, fears, and anxieties on various levels. Compounded with discontent of the Kemalist ruling of the time and increasing level of bureaucratisation, modernisation came to mean 'harmful Western influence' - cosmopolitanism, technology, and non-Muslim population (especially women). At the centre of all these discontents and anxieties did stand the fear of losing one's manliness and masculine autonomy, which have strong political implications for reading anxieties surrounding the relationship between male citizen and modern state.

In this paper, I examine the literary representations of the aforementioned concerns, some of which correspond to the existing debates in non-western modernities through an analysis of a novel written in 1945. I argue that the response of the author, representative of a particular intellectual tradition, to these anxieties was to reconceptualise the nature as an alternative space - pure, harmonious, and homogenous, where a much needed reconstruction of modern masculine identity would take place. Works of literature are particularly good sources of information since they (have) provided a somewhat convenient space to carry out discussions especially about gender-related aspects of modernisation.

Zofia Szachnowska-Olesiejuk

University of Gdańsk, Poland

Poo-tee-weet or The End Is Nigh - The Motif of Apocalypse in Kurt Vonnegut's novels

The paper discusses the postmodern approach towards literary genres of terror, focusing on the writing of Kurt Vonnegut (mainly on the novels Slaughterhouse-Five, Cat's Cradle and Breakfast of Champions). As the author invariably touches upon the existential condition of humanity doomed to annihilation, thus making the motif of apocalypse the central theme of his literary musings, the presentation aims at analyzing the structure of his apocalyptic novels, its functions and interpretative implications thereof.

Therefore the first part is devoted to presenting different literary modes incoroporated into the fabric of Vonnegutian fiction (e.g. science-fiction novel, war novel, parable, utopia/dystopia, modern travesty of the original apocalyptic narrative, comic book, nursery rhyme and fairy tale).

Then, the presentation passes on to discuss the functions of this tragi-comic collage capturing the absurdity of both the wordly and the ultimate (e.g. divulging the myth of man's greatness, highlighting the horrors brought about by our civilization, and, finally, taming the fear of both life and death).

The concluding part tries to indicate the interpretative implications that might stem from such a perverse handling of the motif of apocalypse (e.g. our dramas and fears lack the tragic dimension since they come from within, not from the outside).

Jeremy Tambling

University of Manchester, UK

Defending Civilization: Defending Fear
Keynote address

There are two terms to be investigated: both civilization, and fear. If civilization derives from the idea of the civis, the citizen, so that the civitas preceded the city, nonetheless, the city has become the embodiment of civilization, and cities were built to give security, as nowadays the gated community in the city and the suburbs is a response to the city as the place of fear, not the refuge from it. The pattern is of fear generating forms of civilization, these forms engendering fear.

Civilization is a late eighteenth-century word, and it implies both a process and a state: the civilizing process. Burke speaks of 'manners and all the good things which are connected with manners and with civilization', and Raymond Williams suggests that these things in Burke are synonymous. Civilization is contrasted with barbarity, and associated with culture. In 1846, Dickens writes of the building in London of 'the yet unfinished and unopened Railroad', which 'was in progress; and from the very core of all this dire disorder, trailed smoothly away, upon its mighty course of civilization and improvement', and mean it unambiguously; civilization is not to be feared, nor its synomym, improvement.

Freud, however, writes 'Das Unbehagen in der Kultur' (1930), having already said, in 'The Future of an Illusion' ('Die Zukunft einer Illusion') (1927):

Human civilization, by which I mean all those respects in which human life has raised itself above its animal status and differs from the life of beasts - and I scorn to distinguish between culture and civilization, - presents ... two aspects. [...] It includes ... all the knowledge and capacity that men have acquired in order to control the forces of nature and extract its wealth for the satisfaction of human needs, and ... all the regulations necessary in order to adjust the relations of men to one another and especially the distribution of the available wealth (SE. 21.5-6).

Freud accepts an antagonism between the individual and civilization, and says that 'civilization has to be defended against the individual' (SE 21.6); thus suggesting that civilization must put a second order of regulations in place, one to control, one to be the protection of that control. The question is when this antagonism becomes apparent, necessitating a sense that fear is necessary for social existence to be maintained, that society must be defended?

A cultural relativism that necessitates adjectives before 'civilization', as happened in the twentieth century, means that civilization is no longer regarded as an unqualified good, as it was for Burke. Hence a civilization must protect itself as an artificial structure against what will attack it, and base itself on fear as a means of protection: it is under siege, as Freud spoke of 'throne and altar' being under attack. There is both the threat that civilization is under, from the hostility of individuals, and the reciprocal threat - the fear - that it uses manipulatively in creating the threatening 'other', as with the war on terror, and as it manipulates the word 'evil'. Freud, thinking of the power of fear, gives a rich collection of terms for the state in which the individual must live: anxiety, and paranoia, claustrophobia and agoraphobia, panic, terror, fright being some of them. Trauma, of course, is the most severe form of what is generically called fear, and its existence enables Freud to make a distinction:

'Anxiety' [Angst] describes a particular state of expecting the danger or preparing for it, even though it may be an unknown one. 'Fear' [Furcht] requires a definite object of which to be afraid. 'Fright' [Schreck], however, is the name we give to the state a person gets into when he has run into danger without being prepared for it; it emphasises the factor of surprise. (SE 18.12-13)

To these may be added 'terror' and 'horror', and it does not seem necessary to make 'fear' a term implying a definite danger. Terror and horror associate with the apocalyptic tone which has recently been adopted in philosophy, and which has been adopted on both sides of the divide: it is the language of civilization, and of fear. Here the argument of Zygmunt Bauman applies: that modernity, supposed to remove the fears which a pre-modern society felt all the time, has replaced that insecurity by its own fears, including 'derivative fear':

a steady frame of mind that is best described as the sentiment of being susceptible to danger; a feeling of insecurity ... and vulnerability (in the event of the danger striking, there will be little if any chance of escape or successful defence; the assumption of vulnerability to dangers depends more on a lack of trust in the defences available than on the volume or nature of actual threats). A person who has interiorised such a vision of the world that includes insecurity and vulnerability will routinely, even in the absence of a genuine threat, resort to the responses proper to a point-blank meeting with danger; 'derivative fear' acquires a self-propelling capacity.

The question now becomes the complicity of civilization, now constructed as modernity, for creating such a fear, which may be called fear of the apocalyptic; or in creating kitsch, which obscures fear - including fear of civilization - as a state which ought to be felt, or which makes fear into something kitsch. Perhaps some forms of fear need to be defended. Julia Kristeva's Powers of Horror argues that the abject state

is the other facet of religious, moral, and ideological codes on which rest the sleep of individuals and the breathing spells of societies. Such codes are abjection's purification and repression. But they make up our 'apocalypse', and that is why we cannot escape the dramatic convulsions of religious crises.

This suggests that binary codes, such as good and evil, are those which civilization uses to protect itself, creating the abject states, and their loosening, or deconstruction, is apocalyptic, releasing states of fear, yet this may also be necessary.

The question for this paper is how, and at when, in the history of modernity civilization becomes a source of fear, and to go forward from a consideration of that.

Daniel Vogel

PWSZ Racibórz, Poland

A European in Africa: Fear of Civilization or Civilization of Fear?

Since the publication of "Heart of Darkness" in 1902 there has been an ongoing discusssion about the role of Europe and Europeans in the process of colonization/civilization of wild Africa. The first encounters with the indigenous people and their fear of the "white devils", the light that was supposed to pierce the darkness of the Black Continent, the setting up the ouposts of progress, the struggle for independence from the European control and finally the bloodshed of tribal conflicts - all these mark the violent history of Africa and African people. In the following paper I am going to have a look at the presence of white colonizers in Africa, their exploitation of the continent and the civilization of fear they introduced. Apart from referring to the history of this continent, I will pay particular attention to the fiction which problematize this issue, beginning with the works of Joseph Conrad, going through the criticism of Conradian "image of Africa" (Chinua Achebe) and ending with the novels written by contemporary postcolonial writers (Caryl Phillips), representatives of the new generation of black British fiction.

Dorota Wiśniewska

University of Łódź, Poland

Dissecting American Psychos: Serial Killers in American Films and Fiction

The phenomenon of serial killing, which involves a number of seemingly unmotivated murders committed by one or more individuals over an extender period of time, has received an increasing amount of attention over the past four decades in the United States. Depending on the proper confluence of publicity, a select few of these individuals achieved a great deal of cultural notoriety and hence a kind of immortality. In our attempt to understand serial killers, we inevitably create myths about them - books and movies have exploited the mental dungeons of serial killers, commercializing these creatures into a franchise. The celebrity culture around serial killers has developed so far that one can now purchase the nail clippings and hair of some killers, as if they were religious icons.

In my essay I look at the American works of fiction that may superficially portray the serial killer as the ultimate alien outsider or enemy of society but which simultaneously reflect back upon society its own perversions, fears, and murderous desires. I also intend to show how the serial killer as metaphor collapses boundaries between good and evil, male and female, high art and kitsch, and resonates deeply with the American public.

Łukasz Wojtkowski

The Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland

Symbolism of Fear in American Political Ads

The most important issue of my paper is contained mostly, though vaguely, in the title. I present the symbols of fear in American political discourse - especially considered as an element of political ads. I analyze the essence of usage of symbols in political communication. Symbols of 'fear' in political ads play important role in constructing the negative image of opponent. In this case symbolism is dominant part of negative and comparative ads - most frequently used in American political campaigns. Examples presented in my paper are specific cases of negative fear symbolic, and they are all selected from presidential campaigns ads.

Natalia Wójcicka

Wroclaw University, Poland

The Living Dead - Redefinition of Death, Organ Harvesting and Fear of the Physician in Popular Culture

In 1968, the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death introduced a new definition of death - one which meant that it was no longer the cessation of circulation and breathing, but the death of the brain, signified by an irreversible coma, that allowed to pronounce a person dead. This change was largely due to the rapid developments in organ transplantation during the preceding decade. The organs could only be harvested from bodies legally dead, but at the same time the organs themselves had to be alive for the transplantation to be successful. The new definition of death solved this problem by defining as dead patients whose breathing and circulation could be supported artificially - thus providing living tissue from dead donors. The idea that death had been redefined to better suit organ harvesting, however, gave rise to a number of fears and anxieties, reflected especially saliently in contemporary popular culture. These anxieties often focused on the scope for manipulation and the power such a situation offered to the physician, thus working within a wider cultural framework of fear of the medical man.

Andrzej Wicher

University of Łódź, Poland

The Problem of the Legitimacy and Topicality of the Fears for the Future of Civilization Expressed in C.S.Lewis's That Hideous Strength

That Hideous Strength (first published in 1945) should of course be, first of all, seen as an integral part, together with Out of the Silent Planet and Perelandra, of the so called Space Trilogy. At the same time, it has its unique features that make it appear to be "an incongruous mixture of the realistic and the supernatural", and, unlike the other parts of the Space Trilogy, its action takes place entirely on our planet. It contains also the greatest concentration of bitter satire, apocalyptic visions and nightmarish situations that make it resemble, up to a point, George Orwell's dystopian novels, written, incidentally, also in the 1940s. Lewis's novel has clearly an antitotalitarian edge to it, but his notion of totalitarianism was visibly different from that of Orwell, and it also seems to be differently situated in relation to the main varieties of totalitarianism: fascism and communism. It seems that it can be argued that Lewis's fears, and, first of all, the idea of "conspiracy against the human race", are more relevant to our 21st c. reality, even though Lewis places his visions in a quaintly archaic, medieval, and fantastic context, bringing to the reader's mind the creations of Lewis's friend, J.R.R.Tolkien.

Marta Zajac

University of Silesia, Poland

The Christian and Anxiety. "[...] voice in the garden [...]" (Gen 3,10) as related to H.U. von Balthasar's theology of the "abiding void"

Balthasar's The Christian and Anxiety(1952) recalls Kierkegaard's study The Concept of Anxiety (1844), which, though designed as theological, poses the question of anxiety within a psychological framework, so that for Kierkegaard, as Balthasar remarks, "Anxiety remains [...] a matter of the finite mind horrified by its own limitlessness". Accordingly, Balthasar re-formulates the issue, dogmatically rather than psychologically, and states that "The mind is made anxious, not by the void of nothingness in its own interior dimension, but by the void which yawns whenever the nearness and concreteness of God [...] have yielded their place to 'someone over there', to an abstract relation to an 'other'". Taking up Balthasar's distinction between "the void of nothingness" and "the void which yawns [as a consequence of] [...] an abstract relation [...]", this paper focuses on Gen 3,10, "I heard your voice in the garden, and I was afraid [...]", as it shows God's abstraction, to account finally for what Balthasar postulates about the "abiding void", the ultimate attitude of the Christian.

And I will show you something different from either
Your shadow at morning striding behind you
Or your shadow at evening rising to meet you;
I will show you fear in a handful of dust.
(T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land, ll.27-3O)

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